English and Scottish foreign missions

English and Scottish missions in the late eighteenth and early to mid-nineteenth centuries not only brought the Gospel message, they were also instrumental in fomenting social reforms, bringing medical care, and ending pagan practices that destroyed the lives of women and children.

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Pietism

Pietism did not create a new ecclesiastical organization, but remained as a force inside Lutheranism. It owed most of its impetus to Spener and Francke, but it was not confined to them alone. Nor was its force spent in Germany, for it made its way into Scandinavia and was welcomed in the cities of Switzerland. There it proved dynamic in awakening an interest in religion among university students and among the people of some of the larger cities. It lost ground because of the lack of leaders to follow Francke, and because of a growing wave of skepticism in Germany.

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