Modern options for worship range from fixed liturgical practice at one end to “free church” liberty at the other. The directory approach, common among Presbyterians, falls in the middle. Modern directories are adaptations of the original directory of the church of Scotland (first published in 1645). In recent years many Presbyterian denominations have adopted new directories with the intent of using them to reform and renew worship. A directory not only guides worship, but also is useful as a teaching tool for pastors, leaders, and members.
Anglican worship emphasizes the incarnational and sacramental motifs of the Christian faith. God was embodied in Jesus Christ. Thus, in worship the church incarnates in a visible and tangible form the embodiment of God in Jesus Christ for the salvation of the world.
From these humble beginnings, religious broadcasting became a multi-billion dollar industry by the end of the century.
The death of Henry in 1547 made it possible for Cranmer and King Edward VI to carry the ecclesiastical changes further. Cranmer directed the clergy to read the Ten Commandments and the Lord’s Prayer weekly in the churches, together with a chapter from the Old Testament and another from the New. A new edition of the Bible, known as the Great Bible, was placed in every church, and the priests were supplied with homilies for popular instruction. The organization of the church was left virtually unchanged, however. The two archbishops of Canterbury and York remained under the pope, and the Episcopal arrangement of bishops was not abolished. The king continued to be the head of the Church and made the appointments of bishops and archbishops.
William Augustus Muhlenberg, an Episcopal minister, was born in Philadelphia in 1796. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1814 and was ordained a priest in the Episcopal Church in 1820.
George Washington Doane, a bishop in the Episcopal Church, was born in Trenton, New Jersey in 1799. He graduated from Union College in 1818 and entered the ministry in 1821. He served various churches until he was elected, in 1832, to the bishopric of New Jersey.
Arthur Cleveland Coxe, a bishop of the Episcopal Church, graduated from the University of New York in 1838, took orders in the ministry in 1841, and served as rector in Hartford, Baltimore, and New York City.
Phillips Brooks, a bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church, was born in Boston in 1835. He graduated from Harvard College in 1855 and then attended the Episcopal School of Theology in Alexandria, Virginia.
John Milton (1608-1674) was one of the greatest English poets. He was born in London and was educated at Cambridge. His family’s wealth allowed him to travel extensively after graduation and to spend six years at his father’s estate writing poetry.
Anglicans for the last ten years have sought to define, through a great deal of study and “trial use,” the role of liturgy in the life of a church whose historical identity is reflected in its worship. Throughout the Anglican Communion there is also a felt need for understanding liturgical inculturation alongside renewal.