The “Lord’s Prayer” and “Our Father” are traditional names given to the set of petitions and doxologies recorded in Matthew 6:9–13 and Luke 11:2–4, which Jesus gave his disciples as a model or example for prayer. The prayer has been included in the catechisms and liturgies of most Christian traditions since the period of the apostolic fathers, usually in close association with the partaking of the Lord’s Supper.
Like any religious institution, the synagogue developed various leadership functions. Over the centuries the roles of the synagogue officers have altered as the needs of the Jewish community have changed. The most important development has been the emergence of the office of rabbi.
The synagogue preserved and passed down the heritage of the Hebrew Bible and developed as an educational institution for the transmission of Jewish rabbinic tradition.
The architecture of the synagogue reflected its function as a place where the Jewish community gathered for prayer, the study of the Law, and other activities. The synagogue often borrowed architectural features from the prevailing Greco-Roman culture.
The history of the synagogue as an institution among the Jews is difficult to trace to its source. Its origins seem to lie outside Palestine and apart from that sector of Jewish life that governed the nation and shaped the Old Testament. By the time of the New Testament, the synagogue had become established as the central institution of local Jewish life.