The East Syrian Christians engaged in widespread missionary activity across the Asian continent, but the rise of Islam reduced their communities to small remnants. The liturgy of these churches is doxological in character, filled with expressions of praise and emphasizing the fulfillment of Christian hope in the kingdom of heaven.
The liturgical traditions of the East derive ultimately from the forms of worship used in Antioch and Alexandria. As with all ancient Christian liturgies, the Service of the Word led into the sacramental offering of the Eucharist. The Eastern traditions comprise the East and West Syrian, the Byzantine (including the Greek and Russian Orthodox), the Armenian, and the Coptic/Ethiopian.
Since Apollinaris’ doctrine marred the perfection of his humanity, it was condemned at the Council of Constantinople in 381. This same Council asserted the divinity of the Holy Spirit. From that time the Athanasian doctrine of the Trinity has held the orthodox position in Christianity.
Jerome (c. 345-420) was born in Dalmatia, or modern-day Croatia, of Christian parents. He went to Rome at the age of 12 to study Latin and Greek.
John Chrysostom (c. 347-407) was born in Syria. He studied rhetoric under the famed teacher Libanius.