The reforms in music which attended the reform of worship in the Reformation ranged widely from the rejection of all instruments and the restriction of singing solely to the Psalms to the choral Eucharists of the Anglicans.
Modern options for worship range from fixed liturgical practice at one end to “free church” liberty at the other. The directory approach, common among Presbyterians, falls in the middle. Modern directories are adaptations of the original directory of the church of Scotland (first published in 1645). In recent years many Presbyterian denominations have adopted new directories with the intent of using them to reform and renew worship. A directory not only guides worship, but also is useful as a teaching tool for pastors, leaders, and members.
Music in free worship is not bound to the text of worship itself but appears here and there as separate, special, occasional, and incidental to the order of worship. This approach has led to a wide divergence of practice among churches.
Alexander Duff (1806-1878) was the first missionary to India from the Church of Scotland. He established the University of Calcutta in 1830.
Horatius Bonar (1808-1889), a distinguished Presbyterian minister, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland.